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A tern nen la mort. Piedmontese: third stage s. In fact, even within Cairese itself, as noted by Parry , , it is possible to find all three strategies 26 a. U n'importa. Cairese: first stage s. U n bugia nent. Cairese: second stage s. Renata am piaz nent. Cairese: third stage Renata s. My goal is to provide a syntactic characterization of the negative markers and of the grammatical system that corresponds to each particular strategy for the expression of sentential negation.

Though focusing on synchronic varieties, this work will shed light on the grammatical system of the different diachronic stages as well: since the synchronic stages correspond so closely to the diachronic ones, an investigation of the former will help us better understand the latter.

I believe that, as suggested by some of the authors who studied the triggers of Jespersen's cycle, a syntactic analysis of the negative markers is necessary to understand the changes that bring a language from one stage to the other. The range of variation A question that arises in several domains of syntactic research concerns the syntactic characterization of negative markers that precede the finite verb. The puzzling fact is that such negative markers do not exhibit consistent behavior across languages, or even in different stages of a single language. In some cases they interfere with headmovement processes such as verb movement , or count as first position in contexts that show second-position effects.

Yet, in other cases, they do not interfere with headmovement processes nor do they count as first position. In general, if a syntactic property is systematically present in non-negative clauses and absent in negative clauses, it is legimitate to wonder whether the two types of clauses are subject to different syntactic requirements. For example, if verb movement were present in all non-negative questions and absent in all negative questions, we would explore the possibility that the trigger for verb movement might not apply in the same way in the two contexts.

But when a syntactic property that is present in non-negative clauses is absent from negative clauses only in some cases and not in others, then it seems more promising to explore the possibility that the syntactic requirements for that type of clause might be uniform, and that they might be obscured in some cases by certain properties of negative clauses, perhaps related to the nature of the negative marker.

The questions then arise of whether there exist syntactically different types of negative markers and whether such differences might be at the basis of the observed variation. This chapter will address precisely these questions, within a well-defined empirical domain.

I refer to this class of elements, pretheoretically, as "pre-verbal negative markers. Moreover, the grammar of a Romance language that negates a clause with a preverbal negative marker differs from that of a Romance language that negates a clause with a post-verbal negative marker in several respects, in particular concerning the formation of questions, the kinds of imperative clauses that are possible, and the distribution of negative indefinites.

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Thus I believe that a precise syntactic characterization of pre-verbal negative markers constitutes the necessary first step toward a deeper understanding of the grammar of these languages. The results of my investigation are at first sight startling because of the complexity of the variation exhibited by the data. For example, we see that, whereas some of the pre-verbal negative markers precede all complement clitics, others precede third person but not first and second person complement clitics simplifying the pattern.

Perhaps equally surprisingly, we also observe that, within a given language, the same negative marker may co-occur or fail to co-occur with verb movement, depending on the syntactic environment in which it occurs. My task will thus be twofold: on the one hand, I attempt to provide a precise description of the syntactic variation exhibited in the contexts examined; on the other, I try to understand the observed variation and systematize it, seeking an answer to the underlying questions of what determines it and how it can be learned.

I will show that there are several reasons to believe that pre-verbal negative markers do not constitute a syntactically homogeneous class but rather are syntactically ambiguous. First I show that differences among pre-verbal negative markers appear when we examine their distribution with respect to complement clitics section 2.

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Then I argue for the need to distinguish two classes of pre-verbal negative markers to account for their distribution with respect to subject clitics section 2. This will lead me to a discussion of the various kinds of subject clitics exhibited by the northern Italian dialects. The results of this last section also argue for the presence of two syntactically distinct types of negative markers, though whether or not they fully coincide with the classes identified in the previous two sections remains to be established.

In organizing the description of the data, I will find it useful to refer to the following distinction among pre-verbal negative markers: whether they can occur as the only negative element in a negative clause — that is, whether they can negate a clause by themselves — or whether they must co-occur with another negative element. Maria now lavora qui. Maria no trabaja aquf. Spanish Maria neg works here 'Maria does not work here.

Ele nao escreveu. Portuguese he neg wrote 'He didn't write. Such an element can be a post-verbal negative marker, as shown in the following examples, or another negative constituent, as we will see later on:3 2 a. French Jean neg'likes neg the meat 'John doesn't like meat. Surmeiran the daughter neg sings neg 'The daughter doesn't sing.

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Romagnolo s. Emiliano s. French ne, for example, while part of the written language, is often missing from less formal styles, though its precise distribution is a rather complex matter cf. Ashby and Lemieux , among others. Here I will not address the issue of the degree to which they are obligatory or optional, but limit myself to pointing out the distribution of these elements and contrast it with that of the pre-verbal negative markers that can occur alone in a negative clause. Some pre-verbal negative markers precede all complement clitics.

These are all the negative markers that can negate a clause by themselves as well as some of the negative markers that must co-occur with another negative element e. Though the relative order of pronominal clitics may vary from language to language, they always follow these negative markers and never undergo reordering with them: 3 a. Maria non glielo ha dato. Maria no se lo dio. Spanish Maria neg him it gave 'Maria didn't give it to him.

Ele nao o comeu. Portuguese he neg it ate 'He didn't eat it.

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Italian Maria him-it neg has given b. Maria him neg it has given c. Maria it neg him has given This property of the pre-verbal negative markers was already mentioned in Brandi and Cordin , and Rizzi , works that point out that the negative marker may precede or follow subject clitics but is never found within the cluster of complement clitics. Their observation needs to be qualified, as we will see, since it is true of the pre-verbal negative markers that can negate a clause by themselves but is not always true of the others.

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Among these are the pre-verbal negative elements of a group of Val Bormida dialects spoken in the Liguria hinterland, in northwestern Italy described in Parry in press a. Pre-verbal n precedes the singular and plural third person pronouns, as well as the partitive clitic corresponding to French en and Italian ne Cairese n and the locative clitic i:9 5 a.

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U ni sent nent. U ni va nent. An li vug nent. Giulia s. All the following data are from Parry in press a : 6 a. U nan sent nent.

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U tin sent nent. U ran sent nent. U vin sent nent. U sin lava nent. Piana Crixia s. Dego s. Carcare s. The following examples illustrate this situation 11 a. I men le devi nent dumandele. U men leda 'nenta.

U ten la 'kata 'nenta. U vi n i da 'nenta, i 'sodi.

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The dialect of Vermes, in the Jura at the Swiss-French border , described in Butz and reported in Parry in press a shows an identical pattern: the pre-verbal negative marker n follows the complement clitics of first and second person, singular and plural, as well as all the reflexives. As far as I can tell, this negative marker must always co-occur with another negative element in the clause; in the examples below, it co-occurs with the counterpart of 'nothing' cf.

The examples are from Butz , cited in Parry in press a : 12 a.