Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities:. Different classifications of academic plagiarism forms have been proposed. Many classifications follow a behavioral approach, i. For example, a survey of teachers and professors by Turnitin ,  identified 10 main forms of plagiarism that students commit:. A systematic literature review on academic plagiarism detection  deductively derived a technically oriented typology of academic plagiarism from the linguistic model of language consisting of lexis , syntax , and semantics extended by a fourth layer to capture the plagiarism of ideas and structures.
The typology categorizes plagiarism forms according to the layer of the model they affect:. In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution. A study showed that students who were new to university study did not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism are.
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For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism e. There has been historic concern about inconsistencies in penalties administered for university student plagiarism, and a plagiarism tariff was devised in for UK higher education institutions in an attempt to encourage some standardization of approaches.
However, to impose sanctions, plagiarism needs to be detected. Strategies faculty members use to detect plagiarism include carefully reading students work and making note of inconsistencies in student writing, citation errors and providing plagiarism prevention education to students. There are allegations that some diploma mills [ discuss ] take students' money for essays, then produce a low standard essay or close their websites without providing the purchased essay.
Students then have little time to provide an essay before a deadline. Also diploma mills have allegedly blackmailed students demanding more money than was originally agreed and threatening to reveal plagiarism to the university unless more money is paid. There are calls for diploma mills to be made illegal in the United Kingdom; in New Zealand and some jurisdictions in the United States they are already illegal. Given the serious consequences that plagiarism has for students, there has been a call for a greater emphasis on learning in order to help students avoid committing plagiarism.
Several studies investigated factors that influence the decision to plagiarize. For example, a panel study with students from German universities found that academic procrastination predicts the frequency plagiarism conducted within six months followed the measurement of academic procrastination. Another study found that plagiarism is more frequent if students perceive plagiarism as beneficial and if they have the opportunity to plagiarize.
Since journalism relies on the public trust, a reporter's failure to honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television news show's integrity and undermines its credibility. Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while the charges are being investigated by the news organization.
The reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one's own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or citing the original work is sometimes described as "self-plagiarism"; the term "recycling fraud" has also been used to describe this practice. In addition there can be a copyright issue if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to another entity. Self-plagiarism is considered a serious ethical issue in settings where someone asserts that a publication consists of new material, such as in publishing or factual documentation.
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In academic fields, self-plagiarism occurs when an author reuses portions of their own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications, but without attributing the previous publication. Miguel Roig has written at length about the topic of self-plagiarism     and his definition of self-plagiarism as using previously disseminated work is widely accepted among scholars of the topic. However, the term "self-plagiarism" has been challenged as being self-contradictory, an oxymoron ,  and on other grounds. For example, Stephanie J. Bird  argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others' material.
Bird identifies the ethical issues of "self-plagiarism" as those of "dual or redundant publication". She also notes that in an educational context, "self-plagiarism" refers to the case of a student who resubmits "the same essay for credit in two different courses. Resnik clarifies, "Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft. According to Patrick M. Scanlon,  "self-plagiarism" is a term with some specialized currency. Roig offers a useful classification system including four types of self-plagiarism: duplicate publication of an article in more than one journal; partitioning of one study into multiple publications, often called salami-slicing; text recycling; and copyright infringement.
Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business Studies. The organization published a code of ethics that describes plagiarism as " It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins. Pamela Samuelson , in , identified several factors she says excuse reuse of one's previously published work, that make it not self-plagiarism.
Among other factors that may excuse reuse of previously published material Samuelson lists the following:.
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Samuelson states she has relied on the "different audience" rationale when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities. She refers to writing for different legal and technical communities, saying: "there are often paragraphs or sequences of paragraphs that can be bodily lifted from one article to the other.
And, in truth, I lift them. Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of self-plagiarism. Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for originality to particular people.
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For example, the American Historical Association 's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" regarding textbooks and reference books states that, since textbooks and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work, they are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research and may be allowed a greater "extent of dependence" on other works.
Through all of the history of literature and of the arts in general, works of art are for a large part repetitions of the tradition ; to the entire history of artistic creativity belong plagiarism, literary theft, appropriation , incorporation, retelling, rewriting, recapitulation, revision, reprise, thematic variation , ironic retake, parody , imitation, stylistic theft, pastiches , collages , and deliberate assemblages.
Ruth Graham quotes T. Eliot —"Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal. Bad poets deface what they take.
A passage of Laurence Sterne 's Tristram Shandy condemns plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism. Sterne's Writings, in which it is clearly shewn, that he, whose manner and style were so long thought original, was, in fact, the most unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in order to garnish his own pages. It must be owned, at the same time, that Sterne selects the materials of his mosaic work with so much art, places them so well, and polishes them so highly, that in most cases we are disposed to pardon the want of originality, in consideration of the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up into the new form.
Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism,   and there are a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Instances of plagiarism that involve copyright violation may be addressed by the rightful content owners sending a DMCA removal notice to the offending site-owner, or to the ISP that is hosting the offending site.
The term "content scraping" has arisen to describe the copying and pasting of information from websites  and blogs. Reverse plagiarism , or attribution without copying ,  refers to falsely giving authorship credit over a work to a person who did not author it, or falsely claiming a source supports an assertion that the source does not make.
The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc. Each of the types of repetition that we have examined is not limited to the mass media but belongs by right to the entire history of artistic creativity; plagiarism, quotation, parody, the ironic retake are typical of the entire artistic-literary tradition.
Much art has been and is repetitive. The concept of absolute originality is a contemporary one, born with Romanticism; classical art was in vast measure serial, and the "modern" avant-garde at the beginning of this century challenged the Romantic idea of "creation from nothingness," with its techniques of collage, mustachios on the Mona Lisa, art about art, and so on.
The verbal signs in the original message or statement are modified by one of a multitude of means or by a combination of means. Second, the efforts to create a sensation of realism appear to be based on the assumption that there are certain essential qualities that distinguish each of the places referenced; if only one can identify, capture, and reproduce these in the gameworld, the experience will feel real istic. Since I cannot discuss all facets of this phenomenon in detail here, I will only briefly sketch out the main tendencies, referencing three exemplary accounts. Practically all authors who write about place in Grand Theft Auto highlight that the games depict fictional cities which mainly draw on the popular cultural imagination, yet they regularly talk about them as if they were quasi-realistic representations of actual places.
The basis for this is exactly the assumption that, on an affective level, the places represented possess essential qualities that can be captured and reproduced. Since these merge immediately with the representations in popular culture, however, precisely the cultural work that supplants the actual place with the myth is continued here. This, however, does not really seem to matter at all precisely because this is a place where media representation and the real-world location have become practically indistinguishable in public perception. When Grand Theft Auto recreates the affective dimension of this phenomenon, the virtual city simultaneously resembles both the real place and the media image because both collapse into one, reproducing the ongoing simulation of Los Angeles.
The modus operandi of this phenomenon becomes particularly apparent when both Bogost and Murray invoke their superior knowledge as locals of the place in their analyses. Los Santos is convincing even to someone who knows Los Angeles, like Bogost, precisely because players relate the symbolic references in the gameworld to their own personal experiences and complement one with the other, regardless of whether these are experiences of the real place or of works of fiction.
Similar logics can be traced across a variety of other texts on Grand Theft Auto. Concerning the question of culturally locating the series, the issue sketched out here nicely illustrates how certain agencies of American culture are at work in Grand Theft Auto and how they can be traced back to the actions of empirically existing actors.
Grand Theft Auto processes iconic American cities precisely because of their recognizability, initially drawing on previous representations from popular culture. This creates further representations of the same kind, thus continuing their cultural work. To sum up, one can state that Grand Theft Auto actively participates in the ongoing simulation of American metropoles, which has practically supplanted the actual places in the popular imagination.
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It works through the double logic of reproducing common representations and simultaneously aspiring to capture a presumed essence of their real-life models, a logic that repeatedly finds confirmation in numerous accounts of individual parts of the series. What connects both production and reception here is exactly this sense that each of these places possesses some essential, defining qualities to begin with, which, in turn, is always already implicated in previous and ongoing mediations of the cities in question; despite their fundamental difference, both points thus collapse into a single phenomenon.
Hence, it is not simply because Grand Theft Auto depicts American scenarios that it belongs to and works within American culture. Instead, one can trace, on the one hand, the work of American culture in Grand Theft Auto by following the actions of empirically real actors and, on the other hand, how the series prompts other actors, who are located within this culture and thus contribute to its self-descriptions, to act in particular ways, i.
Likewise, there is a new terrain of Internet audience research which studies how fans act in chat rooms devoted to their favorite artifacts of media culture, create their own fansites, or construct artifacts that disclose how they are living out the fantasies and scripts of the culture industries. Previous studies of the audience and the reception of media privileged ethnographic studies that selected slices of the vast media audiences, usually from the site where researchers themselves lived.
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Such studies are invariably limited and broader effects research can indicate how the most popular artifacts of media culture have a wide range of effects. In my book Media Culture , I studied some examples of popular cultural artifacts which clearly influenced behavior in audiences throughout the globe. Examples include groups of kids and adults who imitated Rambo in various forms of asocial behavior, or fans of Beavis and Butt-Head who started fires or tortured animals in the modes practiced by the popular MTV cartoon characters. Media effects are complex and controversial and it is the merit of cultural studies to make their study an important part of its agenda.
To avoid the one-sidedness of textual analysis approaches, or audience and reception studies, I propose that cultural studies itself be multiperspectival , getting at culture from the perspectives of political economy, text analysis, and audience reception, as outlined above.
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Textual analysis should utilize a multiplicity of perspectives and critical methods, and audience reception studies should delineate the wide range of subject positions, or perspectives, through which audiences appropriate culture. This requires a multicultural approach that sees the importance of analyzing the dimensions of class, race and ethnicity, and gender and sexual preference within the texts of media culture, while studying as well their impact on how audiences read and interpret media culture.
In addition, a critical cultural studies attacks sexism, racism, or bias against specific social groups i. As an example of how considerations of production, textual analysis, and audience readings can fruitfully intersect in cultural studies, let us reflect on the Madonna phenomenon. Madonna first appeared in the moment of Reaganism and embodied the materialistic and consumer-oriented ethos of the s "Material Girl". She also appeared in a time of dramatic image proliferation, associated with MTV, fashion fever, and intense marketing of products.